The Dirt Bag Interview

Ask your admin assistant to call the candidate with a bunch of reasonable layman's questions about things like basic skills, when she is available for an interview, etc. Anyone who treats the admin badly is not going to fit in.

via Hiring Technical People

Jason In The Journal

Jason of has been interviewed as part of an article on recruiting blogs in The Wall Street Journal.


Funny Airport Codes

The airport code for Fukuoka, Japan is FUK; Damascus, Syria is DAM and Helsinki, Finland is HEL. On on a trip from Fukoka to Damascus to Helsinki, what do you say when an agent asks:

"Where are you going, sir?".

via Barry Moltz

Take Two Advil and Call a Headhunter

Businessweek has a semi-interesting article about Headhunters titled Avoiding Headaches with a Headhunter.

The article is basically full of stories about the bad things that headhunters do. Well to be more specific it is about the bad things that crappy contingency firms do. In fact I am shocked that there are still people out there conducting themselves in the manner outlined in the piece. It sounds like stuff that used to happen in the '80s.

For example:

Or let's say an employer has a job opening listed on a Web site or in the paper. If a headhunter you've authorized to represent you gives the company your résumë before your own response to its help-wanted ad arrives, the company won't deal with you directly. That's because if it hires you, it'll owe the search person a fee. The hiring manager may like your résumë, but not enough to pay a fee, when plenty of qualified candidates may be available without a fee. If you're "owned" by the search guy, then it's too bad for you

Ok that would never happen with a retained firm. Because we don't "chase" openings. We often are involved in managing ad response for clients though so it wouldn't be a problem. If you do give your resume to a headhunter make it clear that you don't want him or her to send it anywhere without calling you first. Also make it clear that you don't want it sent to companies that are advertising in the paper. But also realize this. If you really stand out from the pack the company will hire you regardless of the ad response. If your resume doesn't get noticed because it came through a recruiter then it means there were other BETTER candidates that came from the ad. I have managed plenty of ad campaigns in my time and trust me if you are that ordinary whether you come from the headhunter or not the only thing you are missing out on is possibly going through the phone screen process.

However if you are convinced you are qualified and are worried about a recruiter having sent your resume in already here's what to do.

First apply to the ad directly. Then phone the hiring manager to make sure your resume has been received. On the voice mail make it clear that you have given no recruiters permission to send in your resume and you wish to apply directly.

Some companies I work with have a policy whereby they don't accept unsolicited resumes from recruiters. If they receive one it is promptly sent back to the recruiter with a letter explaining that they do not accept resumes from firms that they do not already have a signed contract with. I have never seen them have to pay a fee for an unsolicited resume yet. So the article might be a bit extreme it it's contention that once a recruiter sends a resume in to a firm it "owns you". As a recruiter who has been stiffed on a fee before I can tell you it's not that clear cut. First of all as a recruiter you have to prove that you sent the resume in and that the company was aware of it. You would have to depend on the candidate to corroborate this and if they didn't get permission they certainly wont do that. I have been in business long enough to know that I never do work for hiring companies without a signed agreement. That has always been the best guarantee that I will get paid. Otherwise I used to get ripped off constantly. I don't know what the laws are like in the US but here in Canada it is not a sure bet that you will get a fee just for floating an unsolicited resume to a company that is advertising.

Another myth in the article:

One more thing: For politeness' sake, don't use the term "headhunter" in front of the search person, at least not at your first meeting. Some of them are a little sensitive about that!

No we aren't. See the title of the blog. Why do people assume we don't like that term? I have NEVER EVER EVER met one headhunter who told me the term was offensive. I prefer it to "agency" "placement firm" and all the other terms that are used to describe us.

Interesting New Blog

Here is a blog used as a personal website by a job-hunter. I think it works and it's free so I highly recommend creating such a blog to everyone whether you are currently looking for a job or not.

If a headhunter calls you and you've got a professional profile easily available online along with a few other relevant details in other entries, it could prove very useful.

He links to a resume off-site. If anyone wants to do that but doesn't know how, ask the question in the comments section here or email him. Many bloggers are generous with sharing bits of technical information.

My Critique

This guy is a technical writer so, it would be nice if he could add some samples of his work to the site but he says that this material is too confidential.

I'm not sure if I would post a picture. This one, in particular, looks a bit too home-made to me. And, am I wrong or is he trying to appear patriotic by having his head beside the Washington monument? Is that an American "thang"?

Also, he let his resume and relocation entries fall further down on his blog. A huge mistake. I would repost them every day as the top entries and let everything go below them.

Or I would post them as permanent LINKS on the side of the page. (I don't see a Links section there but it is a standard part of Blogger's format). He could also post his email address under the EMAIL ME section which, also, is missing here.

Regarding the subtitle of his blog. a) It's too long. And b) I would cut the part about the site presenting "extraneous thoughts that may get me fired before I'm even hired!" Sorry, but that sounds dumb.

If you're not smart enough to leave iffy material out, I would think twice about hiring you. I would leave the subtitle at this: "This site presents my working life for potential employers".

On the positive side, Rob reduced the size of font in the blog's title. That takes a little tinkering with the HTML code of the blog's template. And, it looks better than yesterday, though a bit bigger wouldn't hurt either - as long as it fits on one line.

Finally, Rob, you might want to take a look at Ensight on which Jeremy has ongoing conversations with his most cherished potential employers (The blogging Moon Gals at Microsoft).

I emailed Rob yesterday and he expressed an openess to feedback, so, if anyone has any you would be doing him a favour by giving it.

PS: Life Of A Guy describes a recent interview (and his blunt reaction to the subsequent rejection). I found his entries interesting but I wouldn't post it on the kind of blog I have been discussing above. I say that just in case anyone is too dumb to realize that himself. Or, hey, maybe you should. Depends what you're after, eh?

PPS: Darren Barefoot comments: "CH's critique is right on. Dude, replace that photo--it looks like the last known shot of a suspected terrorist".

Brain Drain?

In today's borderless labour market, Canadian executives are "an exportable resource" -- and demand is high around the world as the global economy continues to pick up steam, say the principals of international executive recruiting firm Egon Zehnder.

However, it is more difficult to recruit world-class executives to Canada because Canadian compensation levels are relatively low, John Grumbar, the London-based chief executive officer of the firm, said in an interview yesterday

The good news, added Tom Long, a Canadian partner in the firm, is that there is no shortage of home-grown talent to fill positions both at home and abroad.

"Canadians are seen to have North American business expertise and experience but, also, are culturally adaptable, so you'll find Canadians dotted all over Europe and the Far East," Mr. Long said.

More Here

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Dictators, by F Castro

Are you tired of feel-good career guides written by motivational flim-flammers and football coaches? Refreshing and controversial, this book is based on the premise that you can best learn to build your career by studying those of rugged individualists who have been through many tough battles and not only survived but flourished.

Rule # 1. Work comes first. Ignore the endless bleating of the work-life balance mafia which insists that you always put family above everything else. If your career is a major priority, it doesn't mean you're a bad person. Listen, Amigo, if you don't work, there is no family. There's times you have to tell your kids, "No, muchachos, I can't play with you right now. Duty calls." If you've shown your family your enduring love, they will understand.


Fool Caller ID

If she won’t pick up a call from you or from an unidentified caller, make the call come from her brother’s house.

1. Set up an account for $20/month with Start 38
2. Log into their website
3. Enter the # you want to call
4. Make up the # you want to display on the recipient’s Caller ID
5. The service calls you back and connects you automatically
6. Calls are 7 to 10 cents per minute above the monthly fee


Buy Low, Sell High

I have often wondered if as part of a fee for a client I should ask for things other than cash. I would love to do a search for CFM Majestic who makes those super Vermont Castings barbecues and get one of their deluxe models as part of the fee.

Also I have always thought it would be good to get stock options from a start-up firm. I think that firms have done this before and of course it does present some risk.

Heidrick and Struggles however have hit the jack pot.

Heidrick & Struggles International (HSII) has made a profit of $128.8 million from the sale of its 1.2 million shares of Google Inc (GOOG.NAS), purchased at a price of $0.30 per share less than a month ago.

The global executive search and consulting firm said in a statement released today that the company had exercised the warrants it held in Google Inc, and monetized the resulting shares, for net proceeds of $128.8 million. Heidrick & Struggles International had obtained the warrants, to purchase about 1.2 million shares of Google's class B common stock at a price of $0.30 per share, as part of its recruitment fees from the online search giant in 2001. The executive search firm sold its 1.2 million shares of Google Inc for an average price of $108.22 per share this week, excluding expenses.

So they bought 'em at thirty cents and sold them for 108.22? Now that is a hell of a fee.

Dustin Hoffman On Communications

Political genius, Dustin Hoffman, is unhappy about the way politicians speak. They hire professional writers and coaches who tell them when to turn this way and when to turn that. And they read their lines from invisible prompters.

I hate it too, mainly because many of these guys aren't good actors and plod robotically through their scripted routines.

Dusty doesn't like it for a different reason. It's deception. He'd rather they all spoke like real people many of whom are so excruciatingly boring that no one can bear to listen to them.

Listen, genius actors, if there's something wrong with political communications or corporate communications, it's not that it's well-delivered. It's that it isn't true.

Hard Power, Soft Power and Candidate Control

Hard power (America's favourite) is the use of bribes and punishments to get others to do what they don't want to do.

Soft power (Canada's favourite) is the use of seductive communication to make them want to do what you want them to.

Both are valid tools but soft power is better because if the target adopts your goals without any ulterior motive, you don't have to monitor his behaviour so closely.

Jason, at tells me that knowing how to use hard power and soft power with candidates is one of a recruiter's essential skills. I've challenged him to supply the details; he says he will. Will update you when they arrive.

Some Tips For Being Happy

1. If your job isn't rewarding, pursue a hobby.

2. Most people want sex and status. But most people won't get them. So pursuing them won't make most people happy. So don't make them a priority.

3. More money doesn't lead to much additional happiness once you already have a lot.

4. Find someone who enjoys listening to you yak.

5. You're born with a tendency to stay within a set range of happiness no matter what you do. So, don't feel you've failed when you feel bad. You were born that way.

6. The best way to deal with a case of severe, long-lasting unhappiness is to take a mood-boosting pill. A six-month treatment will jolt a depressed person out of his or her rut.

via Marginal Revolution
Future Shock

About a year ago I interviewed a fellow who had spent a few years working in Korea in the financial sector (doing something other than teaching English). Over the course of the interview in which we discussed a lot about the country he mentioned (in rather gushing terms) that Korea was the most wired nation on earth.

I took his statement with a grain of salt. In fact I didn't believe him. I thought he was just being a little hyperbolic about his experience there.

Well turns out I was wrong and he was not lying. Fortune has an interesting article in their latest issue called Broadband Wonderland which is about Korea and how it is leagues ahead of us in the broadband arena. I don't know if it is subscriber only content so I will post a few highlights here of what may (or should) be a glimpse into the future.

When millions of South Koreans stream out of those apartment houses to start their notoriously long workdays, many of them are clutching a broadband mobile phone. (The government anticipates that 39.5 million Koreans—of a total population of 48.5 million—will carry broadband-enabled handsets by 2008.) Young people festoon them with feathers or tassels and dangle them around their necks. The phones are for more than just talking: The mobile handset has evolved into an all-purpose multimedia device. Call it a universal remote control for daily life....

....America's broadband "fat pipes," it turns out, are mere garden hoses compared with the firehoses most South Koreans enjoy. At a time when the Federal Communications Commission defines broadband as an Internet connection capable of transmitting 200,000 bits of information a second (200 kbps), the Korean speedometer doesn't even start until transmission speeds pass the one million bits (one megabit) mark. Wired connections of eight megabits are routine—about five times faster than my American high-speed cable modem on a good day—and many Korean subscribers have already bumped up to 20-megabit connections......

......By next year, Korea's Ministry of Information and Communications wants to upgrade the nation's high-speed backbone to 50 megabits, and by 2012, the ministry says, Koreans will be luxuriating in 100-megabit cascades of data. Nobody is quite sure what they'll do with all that bandwidth, but researchers say it's inevitable that applications and services will be invented to take advantage of it. Broadband paves the way for distance education, for example; beaming interactive classes to schoolchildren, adults, and the elderly is a particularly attractive vision in a nation where learning is a national obsession. Broadband also makes possible telemedicine, letting specialists in Seoul serve patients in rural communities where advanced medical care is scarce.....

.......Back in the labs of LG Electronics there's even stranger stuff in the works. "Let me give one interesting scenario," says Park Hyun, who heads the company's "smart apartments" development work. "Every morning when you sit on the bathroom stool, your body temperature, pulse rate, and weight will be measured automatically and sent to your physician, including the test results of your urine. Your doctor will call you if he or she finds anything wrong. Whenever you are doing exercise on the running machine, all the information about your exercise, including speed, duration, inclination, and pulse rate, will be collected and your home server will give you the right exercise prescription based on your physical condition.....

Affairs Counter-offers: The Warning Signs

1. The candidate constantly reschedules.

2. Candidate takes forever to make up her mind. Needs tons of info..

3. Candidate discusses the job with a workplace peer or supervisor. (He's fishing for a counter offer).

4. Mr Charlie gives the candidate a promotion or raise. (He's secretly heard that the candidate is looking and strikes back with an unacknowledged counter-offer).

5. Resignation letter indicates Candi's open to a counter-offer: eg “This has been a difficult decision for me.”

If the candidate begins to smell funny, ask for an upfront commitment against a counter offer. If he refuses...uh-oh.

Bill Radin via Jason @
Ousting A CEO

What to do when a CEO of a large public company has stayed longer than his shelf life? Well that is what many people feel has happened at Disney with former golden boy Michael Eisner.

Machinations to have Eisner removed have been going on in a fairly public way (which to me is not good) for some time now as Disney family members and now disgruntled shareholders demand better performance from the Disney empire:

The ABC Network is a mess. And both Steve Jobs's Pixar Animation Studios and Harvey Weinstein's Miramax Studios want out of their Disney partnerships largely because of frayed relationships with Eisner. Says Sean Harrigan, president of the California Public Employees Retirement System and a longtime Eisner critic and Disney stakeholder: "It is not clear to us how a two-year lame duck CEO will benefit shareowners

Businessweek has an article about the situation that illustrates three key steps that Disney should take to remedy the situation. Interestingly the steps outlined could be a template for any large public company to use in a similar situation. They are:


The board should ignore Eisner's schedule, plan an earlier departure, and begin a search for his replacement with or without Eisner's involvement. o make the best choice, the board must hire an executive search firm and cast a wide net. I like this one. Yes. Call a headhunter fast!

It should add someone with the chops to be chairman, and it should turn to a true outside board member, such as Clorox Co. Chairman Robert W. Matschullat, to head the search. .


Exiting CEOs have sometimes helped their successors make the transition to the job. But at many companies, including Coca-Cola Co. and Xerox Corp., the arrangement has been problematic, particularly when the outgoing CEO dominated the company culture, as Eisner has Disney's. The risk that Eisner will remain could hurt the search for a strong candidate. That's why directors also must set a date for Eisner to leave the board once they name a successor

Read the whole article here

How To Become Open-Minded

1) Select an important topic in your business. Take the opposite side from your own. Write five reasons to support this view.

2) Remember a time when you were wronged in the past. Generate three plausible reasons why the person inadvertently or intentionally wronged you.

3) Think of a topic that you consistently argue about. Take the other side's position and think of 3 substantial reasons why that point of view is valid. (This is great with views you hear regularly and despise).

This isn't altruistic. If you know the other guy's best ammo you'll be in a better position to work with him or defeat him.
Music to Hunt Heads By

Hey, we have our own soundtrack!

Composer Richard Jacques' has announced that his acclaimed orchestral scores for both SEGA's Headhunter and Headhunter: Redemption Videogames will be released as a 2-CD Set

I checked and the game doesn't seem to be about the type of headhunting that we do. At least not on the surface anyway.

Boss-Sponsored Spirituality

The Zen lesson of my job is this: just because I do not want to be a video clerk doesn't mean I shouldn't be the best possible video clerk I can be.
via Ali D.


Down in Oz, top talent has an argot called “Rorrim Klat”. The code is formed by saying words backwards and it's used to make nasty comments about people without getting caught.

Top intellects can have entire conversations in the language, but ordinary folk use a core vocabulary of 20 to 30 key words.

If a word can’t really be pronounced backwards, a couple of letters will be switched around (eg "tihsllub" becomes "tishllub"). Or, some of the letters might be pronounced separately (e.g., “bmud” becomes “beemud”). Here are some samples: "roop reggub", "gib foog", "diputs epod", "elohesra".

Source. via Work Hate.
Even Headhunters Get Cold Feet

The bane of every recruiters existence are two scenarios: The counter-offer acceptance where your candidate has accpeted an offer but then when he or she goes to resign the company makes a counter offer and the candidate accepts it.

The other is the fall-off (or fall-out as some recruiters call it). That is where the candidate accepts a job and starts working at the new company but after a short period of time returns to his or her old firm.

This is worse than a counter-offer acceptance in my book and most headhunters consider it to be very dishonorable. But it turns out even headhunters do it :

A week after well-known Houston recruiter Tom Simmons announced he was joining Korn/Ferry International as its new managing director, he changed his mind and returned to Spencer Stuart.

Simmons decided the challenge to build his one-time competitor wasn't for him after all.

Although Eric Nielsen who left Spencer Stuart to join Korn Ferry along with Simmons won't be changing his mind:

"I've made my decision and once you have walked across the bridge and become public with it, it's hard to go back with any credibility," said Nielsen.

My feelings exactly.

My Secret Life

I might be in Oromucto, I might be in Calgary,
Workin' for some man who might not know who I might be.

So, if you ever see me coming, and if you know who I am,
Don’t you breathe it to nobody, ‘cause you know I’m on the lam.

Counter Offers Make Sense

Carol Hymowitz is not a head-hunter. Her income is not on the line if you accept a counter-offer. So, when she wrote an article about counter offers in the Wall Street Journal it was quite unlike the horror stories produced by recruiters.

She quotes Peter Crist, the Vice Chairman of Korn/Ferry, the famous executive search firm. He believes that the average career now includes seven to ten company changes. Top talent employees have a lot of freedom of movement in this environment and it makes sense to make counter-offers to hang on to them.

Manoj Saxena is president of Exterprice in Austin, Texas. When two employees told him (on separate occasions) that they wanted to leave because they weren't being challenged he told them to write up their ideal job descriptions. Both were promoted to more demanding jobs and received raises.

The best way to avoid the need for counteroffers is to make sure your good people are challenged, promoted and rewarded before they are tapped by others.

Mentor staff about their career paths. Make sure they are in jobs that allow them to learn new skills and grow. If you want to keep the good guys, you have to provide a growth path that goes beyond money.

As for money, regularly poll the market to determine whether there are big gaps between salaries at your company and elsewhere.

Source via Jason @
War for Talent Update

Apparently London has a shortage of qualified accountants. Just last week I was mentioning how the recent trends in North America around litigation had led to increased demand for Auditors. Seems the trend is not just North American.

Recruiters delighted by accountant shortage:

The war for talent between accountancy firms is giving a boost to financial recruitment specialists as firms struggle to find staff because of a dearth of professionals in London and the South East.
Link: Graduates get up to speed in job search
Specialist recruiter Hayes yesterday announced 17% net fee income growth in July and August, up from 11% for the 12 months to June 30.
Similarly, Robert Walters has seen net fee income shoot up by 21% over the past eight months, The Guardian reported.
Denis Waxman, chief executive at Hays, said 'quite big shortages' were also driving double-digit growth in the salaries of recently qualified accountants

Take note of the last line you bean counters. Double-digit growth in salaries!!

Networking Buddies

This is crucial for amateurs.

1. Go to a networking event with a buddy.
2. Agree on a plan of action.
3. Create signals that show you want to be rescued from
4. Make sure your buddy knows to introduce himself if you
5. Give extended introductions that stimulate conversation.

via Simmy Simran III

Ignorance of The Law Is An Excuse

You email a memo to your staff. It asks them to kindly read a policy posted on your intranet. One knucklehead doesn't read the policy. Is he bound by it?

No, says a Boston court. People get so much meaningless email, you can't expect them to take it seriously.

In Campbell v. General Dynamics, the company has proof that Campbell opened the email. But there is no evidence that he read it or followed the hyperlinks to the intranet.

The lesson? Make your employees email confirmation that they have read the policy. And have your IT systems track their access to internal websites.

And, bosses, stop writing crappy messages.

The General Dynamics email had a bland title, the policy was vaguely described in the 3rd paragraph but only in the 5th paragraph did it say it was really important.

More here and here via Lisa Parker-Bowles @
No Openings....

Some countries are just not good for headhunters:

Iran's unemployment rate to hit 50% for 15-29 age group in two years.

Yikes! Can you say surplus of candidates.

Communication For Dummies

I know someone who is very silly. She jumps to conclusions and seizes on half-truths and gets very emotional when you challenge her ideas.

She's so obviously wrong that when she speaks it's like hearing someone claim that 1+1 is 3. So, my response is to insist that 1+1 is 2. That's true, isn't it? That's why I keep saying it over and over again. She's got to realize it sooner or later, doesn't she?

No, she doesn't. She gets upset and ends the conversation, every time. And, I'm as dumb as a bull chasing a red flag for not seeing that. So, I have to do something different. But what?

Michelle Weiner-Davis says that in human relations aggressive disagreement never works. Aggressive complimenting does.

If you want to get through to someone, find things the other person says or does that you like and compliment her for it. People bask in compliments and relax their defences.

You won't be able burden them with too much contradiction. But you might be able to get a few ideas through, as long as you don't present them as criticism.

Now, it's painful to compliment someone you think is an idiot but according to Davis it's absolutely necessary. And, be systematic. Compliment on one thing at a time and then watch patiently to see if your compliments have any effect.

To twist a phrase from the great Steve Finkel: "It's how you train puppies, and it's how you communicate with people".

Suits Me

I believe men should wear suits to work if they work in an office. I hate casual Fridays and I hate the mock turtleneck and golf shirt look that is so popular right now.

So I was heartened yesterday to find this piece of good news:

The suit is back, and America's boardrooms and bars are looking smart again.

While Internet millionaires in T-shirts and faded jeans set the style standard for men during the late 1990s, dress pants and dress shirts, jackets, suits and ties have made a comeback.

"It got so casual, the guy looked like he slept in his golf shirt. His khakis were wrinkled beyond belief and his shoes made him look like he was going to paint the house," says Marshal Cohen, chief retail industry analyst at market research firm The NPD Group.

This trend got so bad that candidates would often show up for interviews without a jacket and tie. Sorry that left an incredibly bad impression on me. Thank God it's over.

Now go pick up a copy of GQ and head down to your local tailor and order a nice made to measure suit and a couple of shirts with French cuffs to go with it. You will look and feel like a million bucks.

Psychopaths Make Great Candidates

Not all psychopaths are violent killers. Many hold normal jobs and can be very attractive candidates.

They're typically charming, confident and ambitious. They have strong verbal skills and tell a good story. And this makes people believe in them.

And a psychopath can be good for a business. A stock market focusing on short-term results demands ruthless leaders who aren't afraid to take fast and hard action without looking back. That's ideal for a psychopath who has no sense of remorse and wouldn't think twice about closing down a plant.

Psychopathic salespeople can also be useful because there's no stopping them. If you throw them out the front door they do go 'round the back.

There is a downside, however. Psychopaths are thrill-seekers so they don't fit into slow-moving bureaucratic companies. And they hate tedious detail work so they leech off other employees who get angry and, eventually, leave. Which can lead to personnel and morale problems.

via Alternative Perspectives via By Ghosh The Price is Right
The Natives are Restless

Are you a digital immigrant or a digital native? Apparently if you are over 30 you are an immigrant.

Why do I call these young computer enthusiasts and organizational activists “digital natives”? Think about the extraordinary cumulative digital experiences of each of these future business, military, and government leaders: an average of close to 10,000 hours playing video games; more than 200,000 e-mails and instant messages sent and received; nearly 10,000 hours of talking, playing games, and using data on cell phones; more than 20,000 hours spent watching TV (much of it jump-cut-laden MTV); almost 500,000 commercials seen — all before they finished college. At most, they’ve logged only 5,000 hours of book reading.

This generation is better than any before at absorbing information and making decisions quickly, as well as at multitasking and parallel processing. In contrast, people age 30 or older are “digital immigrants” because they can never be as fluent in technology as a native who was born into it. You can see it in the digital immigrants’ “accent” — whether it is printing out e-mails or typing with fingers rather than thumbs. Have you ever noticed that digital natives, unlike digital immigrants, don’t talk about “information overload”? Rather, they crave more information.

I disagree with this as I am 40 and consider myself to be a digital native. Not because I have played a lot of video games but because I have no fear over technology and can adapt to it fairly readily. In fact I love technology. So does Mike. However we are in the minority in our age group I think...

However it is an interesting article on how "command and control" management is being bypassed by the digital age. Read the whole thing here.